Posted on Sunday, April 10, 2011
in Haemophilus Influenzae
The first step to denial against Haemophilus influenzae infection is giving antibiotics. For the people with only less infection can be given treatment by using oral antibiotics just for 10 – 14 days and they don’t require hospitalisation. For mild contagion the recommended antibiotics are azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim and cefuroxim.
Ampicillin and amoxicillin must be applied only if the lab tests confirm their potency. For high infection of Haemophilus influenzae like infection in lungs, brain, bloodstream and bone need endovenous administration of 3rd generation ceftriaxone, cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin or cefotaxime for 10 -14 days. The most common side effects by using these antibiotics include vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. TMP/SMX can cause the rare condition recognized as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, it is characterized by purplish or red skin rash that disperses and blisters, eventually inducing the sinks’ top layer to die.
The use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone in compounding with macrolides like erythromycin, or azithromycin are also useful for treating respiratory tract contagion caused by Haemophilus Influenzae. To re-vaccinated individuals oral rifampin of low dosages are prescribed for those who have been exhibited to Haemophilus Influenzae to preclude contagion. Rifampin can raise the metabolic process of oral contraceptives, still and can make tears and urine red or orange and hence, must be used with precaution. Oxygen therapy is frequently given to patients who are having Haemophilus influenzae infections in lungs and bloodstream that induce shortness of breath plus disorientation. These kinds of patients are generally hospitalized. They are given oxygen using a nasal cannula or a simple face mask with concentration higher than the room environment.
Posted on Sunday, April 3, 2011
in Haemophilus Influenzae
Some special Conditions and Prevention tilts for Haemophilus influenzae infection maintains decent respiratory function via proper positioning and humidification for children when necessary, and suctioning when needed. Observe for signs of dyspnea and cyanosis, which necessitate a tracheotomy or intubation. Check the patient’s record to conform that they don’t have drug allergies, before giving antibiotics. We should monitor intake which includes I.V. infusions and also output. Observe for symptoms of dehydration, like parched lips, decreased skin turgor, decreased urine output, concentrated urine, and increased heart beat. Watch the rate and kind of respirations. For home treatment, advise that the patient live in room humidifier or take a breather moist air from shower or bath, when necessary. Observe the whole blood count for marks of bone marrow impression when therapy admits chloramphenicol. Take preventive measures, like giving the Haemophilus influenzae vaccine to kids of age 2 years or less than that, maintaining respiratory isolation, applying right hand-washing technique, decently discarding of respiratory secemments, and decontaminating all instruments.
The Treatment for Haemophilus influenzae infection generally responds to a two-week treatment of ampicillin, after giving this treatment also 30% of bacteria are not destroyed. Ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol or cefotaxime is used at the same time until bacteria shows sensitivity. Rifampin should be provided before discharge to ensure treatment success. These diseases are cured with antibiotics. Mostly the antibiotics are provided in tablet form or liquid form. The Haemophilus influenzae vaccine can prevent most serious cases of H flu disease.
Posted on Wednesday, March 30, 2011
in Haemophilus Influenzae
Hemophilus Influenzae is a gram negative, non motile bacillus. It has fastidious growth requirements. It requires enriched media such as blood agar or chocolate agar for their growth because accessory growth factors known as factor X and V present in blood are essential for their growth. Optimum temperature for their growth is 35-37 degree. Antigenic structure consists of 3 major surface antigens capsular polysaccharide, outer membrane protein, lipo polysaccharide. Type b polysaccharide has a unique chemical structure containing polyribosyl ribitol phosphate which induces IgG, IgM, IgA antibodies which are bactericidal, opsonic & protective. Virulence factors are capsular polysaccharide which resist phagocytosis, pili which helps in the attachment of organism to epithelial cells, outer membrane proteins which contribute to adhesion and invasion of host tissues, IgA1 protease that specifically cleaves the heavy chain of IgA1. They are commensal in the nasopharynx or oropharynx.
Infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae B are Meningitis, Acute epiglottitis, Pneumonia, Bronchitis& Suppurative lesions. H.influenzae is killed by heat 55 degree C for 30mins, refrigeration at 4 degree C, disinfectants& drying. The specimens to be collected for laboratory diagnosis are CSF, Blood, Throat swab, Sputum, Pus, aspirates from joints, middle ear, sinuses etc. These specimens can be sent for direct microscopy such as Gram staining, Immunofluorescence and quelling reaction, CIE or it can be sent for Culture. It can be treated by using Sulphonamides, Chlorampnenicol, Cefotaxime, ceftazidime. But Amoxycillin-clavunate or Clarithromycin is more effective. Prophylaxis is purified type b polysaccharide vaccine used in children, Haemophilus influenzae B PRP vaccine used in young children.